Generalizing results of researches of processes of thinking and reaction of people in various situations, David Makklelland and his colleagues developed model of the motivation focusing on requirements of the highest levels and united them in three categories: accessions, authorities and achievements.
Planning and success of the organization. Some organizations, as well as individuals, can reach a certain level of success, without spending big work for formal planning. Moreover, strategic planning in itself does not guarantee success. The organization creating strategic plans can fail because of mistakes in the organization, motivation and control.
K. Alderfer first of all was interested in a problem of allocation of primary needs of the person, i.e. natural requirements of a live organism. The satisfaction is connected with internal state of the individual who received to what aspired.
Requirements of interrelations include the relations of the person with other individuals and groups — the Person satisfies with family members, colleagues, chiefs, subordinates, etc. these requirements when he shares the thoughts and feelings with other people, and this process has to be mutual.
Also process of transformation of needs of the person to behavior is not less individual. For example, the individual with high requirement of responsibility or advance will satisfy it, having achieved transfer to other department. And someone will make the decision to replace a kind of activity.
Four functions of management - planning, the organization, motivation and control - have two general characteristics: all of them demand decision-making, and communication, exchange of information is necessary for all to receive information for adoption of the correct decision and to make this decision clear for other members of the organization. Because of it and also because these two characteristics connect all four administrative functions, providing their interdependence, communications and decision-making are called often binding processes.
The method of a carrot and stick or method of remuneration and punishment which is applied and now was the very first reception of motivation to work. The people who are subordinates in the modern organizations are usually much more formed and provided, than in the past and their motives of work are more difficult for influence.
Control is the process providing achievement of the objectives of the organization. It is necessary for detection and permission of the arising problems earlier, than they will become too serious, and can be also used for stimulation of successful activity.